Cataract – Symptoms, Causes, Types, Diagnosis, and Treatment
A cataract is an eye disorder that refers to the clouding of the otherwise clear lens of the eye. It refers to the dense cloudy area that develops in the natural crystalline eye lens. Cataracts are common for old age people. These can occur in both eyes but do not usually occur simultaneously.
People who have a cataract are not able to see clearly from the affected eye. For them, seeing something is like watching it from a frosty or fogged-up window. The clouded vision makes it difficult for the patients to perform everyday activities such as reading a book or driving a car.
Cataracts usually develop slowly and do not cause any disturbance in the early stages. It is only with time that cataracts begin to affect the vision of the patient. At the start, brighter light and eyeglasses can help the patients see clearly but eventually, surgery is needed to correct the vision.
Symptoms of Cataract
The most prevalent sign of cataract is a cloudy and blurred vision. Patients usually complain of poor vision at night and in dim light. They develop sensitivity to light and glare.
Most people begin to see colours as faded and may complain of double vision in the affected eye. They may also see halos around lights. In numerous cases, the patients need frequent changes in their prescription glasses or contact lenses as well.
Causes of Cataract
Cataract formation is normally triggered by an injury or trauma. Aging is also known to cause changes to the tissues of the eye lens and is the leading cause of cataract.
For a few patients, genetic disorders also increase the risk of cataracts. Cataracts may also be formed due to other eye conditions such as eye surgery or health conditions such as diabetes and hypertension.
Long term and extended use of steroids or other medications are also known to promote the formation of cataracts. Other causes of cataracts include – smoking, radiation therapy, and exposure to UV radiation.
Overexposure to sunlight and excessive consumption of alcohol are also known to increase the risk of cataracts.
Types of Cataract
- Nuclear Cataracts – These cataracts form in the middle of the eye lens and cause the nucleus to turn yellow or brown.
- Cortical Cataracts – This type of cataract is known to affect the edges of the lens. It is whitish and forms wedge-shaped streaks on the outer edge of the eye lens.
- Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts – These cataracts affect the back of the lens and develop faster than nuclear or cortical cataracts.
- Congenital Cataracts – These cataracts are the ones that are present at the time of birth or develop during the child’s first year..
- Secondary Cataracts – Cataracts formed by disease or extended use of certain medications are known as secondary cataracts.
- Traumatic Cataracts – Cataracts that develop after eye surgery, eye injury, or any other eye disease are referred to as traumatic cataracts.
- Radiation Cataracts – These cataracts are the ones that develop after a person undergoes radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer.
Diagnosis for Cataract
The doctor will begin with a thorough eye examination to check your vision and examine the presence of cataracts. You will undergo an eye chart test where you will be asked to read the numbers and alphabets written on a distant paper chart.
The doctor is also likely to check your sensitivity to glare and your perception of colours. You might also be made to undergo tonometry which is an eye examination to check for eye pressure.
In this test, the doctor uses a painless puff of air to flatten the cornea. He/she might also use eye drops to make your pupils bigger as this will make it easier for the doctor to check your optic nerve and retina for any possible damage.
Surgery is by far the most successful treatment of cataracts for people of all age groups. The cataract surgery removes the cloudy eye lens and replaces it with an Intro Ocular Lens (IOL).
At Abhinav Eye Care and Laser Centre, we excel in the Phacoemulsification process. It is a no-stitch eye surgery for cataracts. In this procedure, a foldable Intra Ocular Lens is inserted through a small 1.8mm to 2.8mm opening.
There are 4 types of IOL as detailed below:
- Aberration free or Aspheric IOLS – These are the best quality IOL that offer improved vision quality due to their unique design. They are also known to improve contrast sensitivity and offer better night or low light vision. These IOL also filter the harmful UV light and blue light.
- Toric IOLS – These lenses help correct the pre-existing corneal astigmatism and are likely to help in removing the spectacles for distant vision.
- Multifocal IOLS – These lenses offer improved vision for all distances and thus patients are able to perform roughly 90% of all activities without having to wear additional glasses.
- Accommodating IOLS – These lenses have flexible hinges that allow them to change focus for different distances.
At Abhinav Eye Care and Laser Centre, we also have other advanced instruments available namely – Zeis IOL Master 700, ZEIS Lumero I Microscope, Corneal topographer, Specular microscope, and Immersion A-Scan & B-Scan.
Abhinav Eye Care and Laser Centre is the best super speciality eye hospital in Hyderabad. It is headed by Dr. Venugopal Rao Appani who is a distinguished ophthalmologist with more than two decades of medical experience. He aims to offer affordable yet high-quality eye care to one and all.
If you are looking for the best-in-class treatment for cataract, schedule your appointment with none other than the best ophthalmologist Dr. Venugopal Rao Appani at Abhinav Eye Care and Laser Centre. We leave no stone unturned to offer world-class medical care and cure to one and all. Book your consultation today!